Heart Attacks and Stroke

Heart attack

A heart attack occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply the heart with oxygen enriched blood, become blocked


  • Tightness and /or pain in the chest (mild or severe)
  • The casualty may be clutching the chest
  • Possible spreading of pain into the arms, neck and back
  • Dizziness or a light-headed feeling
  • Possible shortness of breath
  • May feel nauseous or be sick
  • May have cold sweats


  • Call for an ambulance (999/112)
  • Sit the casualty down with legs drawn up in a position which is comfortable
  • Loosen any restrictive clothing
  • Keep the casualty warm and comfortable
  • Monitor the casualty’s airway and breathing
  • If the casualty becomes unresponsive then carry out basic life support

The video below shows how to treat a heart attack


A stroke is either short term or permanent damage to the brain and /or body. If you suspect a stroke, then you must act FAST

Facial weaknessCan the person smile, has the face dropped to one side

Arm weakness- Can the person raise both arms

Speech problems – Can the person speak clearly and understand what you say

Time to call 999/112- Early, treatment can be given which can prevent further damage


  • Call for an ambulance (999/112) immediately
  • If responsive lay the casualty down with the head and shoulders raised or assist into a comfortable position
  • If unconscious place into the recovery position, affected side down
  • Loosen any restrictive clothing
  • If there are any secretions, then wipe them away
  • Monitor the airway and breathing
  • If unresponsive place the casualty in the recovery position (Monitor airway and breathing)
  • Be prepared to carry out basic life support

Remember the FAST test