Head injuries

Head injuriesGirl_holding_head_476x290

All head injuries have the potential to be life threatening and qualified medical assistance should be sought in all instances where a major head injury is suspected. Types of major head injuries include concussion, cerebral compression and skull fracture. Head injuries are the most common injuries in toddlers.


CONCUSSION (what is it?)

Concussion is when shaking of the brain causes temporary disturbance of normal brain activity, often caused by a blow to the head. How to recognise this is by noticing any of the following:

  • Possible brief loss of consciousness
  • Dizziness and nausea
  • Headache
  • Brief loss of memory
  • Blurred Vision


A build up of pressure on the brain caused by brain tissue swelling or an accumulation of blood. How to recognise this is by noticing any of the following:

  • Intense headache
  • drowsiness
  • unequal pupil sizes
  • Slow, strong pulse
  • weakness or paralysis down one side of the body
  • Noisy breathing


Can be either open or closed. Caused by either a direct or indirect blow to the head. Recognition includes:

  • associated wound
  • tenderness and pain
  • depression/deformity of the skull
  • bruising and swelling at the site of injury
  • presence of Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) from ears and nose. (CSF is a clear/yellowish liquid)


  • Control any bleeding and or CSF loss
  • Contact the emergency services
  • Place the casualty in a comfortable position, preferably on a flat surface with head and shoulders raised.
  • Monitor the casualty and be prepared to carry out basic life support.


Please watch the video below




 With a suspected skull fracture DO NOT turn the head in case there is an associated neck or spinal injury.